This post contains affiliate links. Please see my disclosure policy. I was looking through my old student-teaching notebook and came across this list granted, it is six years old.
States continue to cut appropriations in response to fiscal constraints and pressures to spend more on other things, such as health care and retirement expenses.
Higher tuition revenues might be an escape valve, but there is great concern about tuition levels increasing resentment among students and their families and the attendant political reverberations. Costs are no less a concern in K—12 education. Until the financial crisis and the subsequent slowdown in U.
The number of school personnel hired for every students more than doubled between and the first decade of the 21st century. But in the past few years, local property values have stagnated and states have faced intensifying fiscal pressure.
With the rising cost of teacher and administrator pensions, the squeeze on school districts is expected to continue. A subject of intense discussion is whether advances in information technology will, under the right circumstances, permit increases in productivity and thereby reduce the cost of instruction.
Greater, and smarter, use of technology in teaching is widely seen as a promising way of controlling costs while reducing achievement gaps and improving access. The exploding growth in online learning, especially in higher education, is often cited as evidence that, at last, technology may offer pathways to progress see Figure 1.
However, there is concern that at least some kinds of online learning are of low quality and that online learning in general depersonalizes education.
Online learning can be used to teach many kinds of subjects to different populations in diverse institutional settings. Click to enlarge Despite the apparent potential of online learning to deliver high-quality instruction at reduced costs, there is very little rigorous evidence on learning outcomes for students receiving instruction online.
Very few studies look at the use of online learning for large introductory courses at major public universities, for example, where the great majority of undergraduate students pursue either associate or baccalaureate degrees.
Even fewer use random assignment to create a true experiment that isolates the effect of learning online from other factors. Our study overcomes many of the limitations of prior studies by using the gold standard research design, a randomized trial, to measure the effect on learning outcomes of a prototypical, interactive online college statistics course.
Specifically, we randomly assigned students at six public university campuses to take the course in a hybrid format, with computer-guided instruction accompanied by one hour of face-to-face instruction each week, or a traditional format, with three to four hours of face-to-face instruction each week.
We find that learning outcomes are essentially the same: Cost simulations, although speculative, indicate that adopting hybrid models of instruction in large introductory courses has the potential to reduce instructor compensation costs quite substantially.
Research Design Our study assesses the educational outcomes generated by what we term interactive learning online ILOhighly sophisticated, web-based courses in which computer-guided instruction can substitute for some though usually not all traditional, face-to-face instruction.
We worked with seven instances of a prototype ILO statistics course at six public university campuses including two separate courses in separate departments on one campus.
Baruch College and City College.
We examine the learning effectiveness of a particular interactive statistics course developed at Carnegie Mellon University CMUconsidered a prototype for ILO courses. Although the CMU course can be delivered in a fully online environment, in this study most of the instruction was delivered through interactive online materials, but the online instruction was supplemented by a one-hour-per-week face-to-face session in which students could ask questions or obtain targeted assistance.
The exact research protocol varied by campus in accordance with local policies, practices, and preferences, but the general procedure followed was 1 at or before the beginning of the semester, students registered for the introductory statistics course were asked to participate in our study and offered modest incentives for doing so; 2 students who consented to participate filled out a baseline survey; 3 study participants were randomly assigned to take the class in a traditional or hybrid format; 4 study participants were asked to take a standardized test of statistical literacy at the beginning of the semester; and 5 at the end of the semester, study participants were asked to take the standardized test of statistical literacy again, as well as to complete another questionnaire.
Of the 3, students enrolled in these statistics courses in the fall semester, agreed to participate in the study and to be randomized into either a hybrid- or traditional-format section. Also, student consent was required in order for researchers to randomly assign them to the traditional or hybrid format.
Not surprisingly, some students who were able to make the paired time slots elected not to participate in the study. All of these complications notwithstanding, our final sample of students is in fact quite large in the context of this type of research.
The end-of-semester survey asked questions about their experiences in the statistics course. Students in study-affiliated sections of the statistics course took a final exam that included a set of items that was identical across all the participating sections at that campus.
The scores of study participants on this common portion of the exam were provided to the research team, along with background administrative data and final course grades of all students both participants and, for comparison purposes, nonparticipants enrolled in the course.
The participants in our study are a diverse group. Less than half are white, and the group is about evenly divided between students with college GPAs above and below 3. Most students are of traditional college-going age younger than 24enrolled full-time, and in their sophomore or junior year.
The data indicate that the randomization worked properly in that traditional- and hybrid-format students in fact have very similar characteristics overall. The students who chose to participate in the study also have broadly similar characteristics to the other students registered for introductory statistics.
The differences that do exist are quite small.
For example, participants are more likely to be enrolled full-time but only by a margin of 90 versus 86 percent. Their outcomes in the statistics course are also comparable, with participants earning similar grades and being only slightly less likely to complete and pass the course than nonparticipants.Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) is a class of paraprofessionals who assist individuals with physical disabilities, mental impairments, and other health care needs with their activities of daily living (ADLs).
UAPs also provide bedside care—including basic nursing procedures—all under the supervision of a registered nurse, licensed practical nurse or other health care professional. Adjusting to college life can be difficult for students transitioning from high school, and even for those who are older barnweddingvt.com there may be some bumps along the way, here are 10 things.
Whether you’re a student or parent, years away from college or just a few days away, we have checklists to help you get ready.
The Coddling of the American Mind. In the name of emotional well-being, college students are increasingly demanding protection from words and ideas they don’t like.
Updated December This post has been updated and revised from this original version. Most of the content is the same, but I have added more details about each talking point. Read the updated version HERE..
When my husband (boyfriend at the time) suggested moving to Alaska. Kindergarten Readiness What a 3 or 4 year old needs to know Here is a list of kindergarten readiness skills based upon a Preschool Inventory given to children at the very end of .